The second wave of dictionary publishing comes in the early 1980s, with Gage refurbishing its Senior Dictionary as the gage canadian Dictionary. 1980 marked the height of quebec nationalist fervour (publication of Bergerons overtly political Dictionnaire de la langue québécoise ) and, with the inaugural Referendum on sovereignty, the first real threat to canadas political integrity since 1812. Perhaps this is the reason for the passage acknowledging the inclusion of regionalisms in the 1983 edition of the gage canadian Dictionary, as well as a striking change from a mention of the centenary to a reassuring comment on Canadas fragile identity. This era marks the rise to national consciousness of Canadas identity crisis, a rise fuelled by both an anxiety over differentiation from the United States and the fear of internal disintegration. The final passage remains unchanged in the most recent version of the gage canadian Dictionary (1997 but the passage on regionalisms has changed, to include among other things a reference to tourtiere and, instead of borrowing from a native language, the term residential school. The current period of the late 1990s, in which we are witnessing a renewed outburst of dictionary production, is also a period of supposed national identity crisis. Canada narrowly survived politically intact from yet another quebec referendum in 1995 and increasingly the Aboriginal question has risen to the political forefront. Does the inclusion of residential school reveal a rising political awareness and shifting consideration of the treatment of the first Nations of Canada?
English as an International Language - 5 Minute English
Such a method of reading history through language is a mode of propagating a myth that serves to heighten underlying tensions in Canadian society, and interfere with the process of mutual understanding and tolerance. Separate from this boosterr more philosophical problem encountered with the historical implications and assumptions of these canadian dictionaries, there are other reasons to question their intention and use value. The first is the circumstance of their publishing. Many of the canadian dictionaries embrace the fact that they are overtly political acts. The firs wave of dictionary publishing came in the late 1960s, with a push for the dchp and the gage senior Dictionary to be published in time for the centenary in 1967. Both dictionaries refer to this event. At the conclusion of the foreword to the dchp,. Wees states: The publishers hope that, as a contribution to centennial thinking, the dictionary of Canadianisms will assist in the identification, not only of Canadianisms but of whatever it is that we may call Canadianism. Elsewhere in the Introduction it is essentially revealed that the work was rushed to print, not wholly error-free, in order to be published in 1967. The senior Dictionary likewise acknowledges this event: because a dictionary is a catalogue if the things relevant to the lives of Canadians, the editor suggests proposal it is therefore fitting that this book should be first published in the year of Canadas Centenary.
Chambers, canadian English: 250 years in the making, canadian Oxford Dictionary, 1998: In the living language there is a reflection of where we have been and where we are likely to go next, and what we have considered important on the way. It is the codification of our common understanding. These accounts conflate political history and the history of the language, and in doing so leave out significant events and aspects of Canadian political reality. Not the least of these is the omission of the issues surrounding quebec and Canadian French, which for twenty years have dominated Canadas political landscape. Further, as in so many of the features of Canadian English and its study, these histories gloss over certain very real distinctions in order to accentuate others. In their mini-histories of the settlement of Canada as read through the language, the exchange between Aboriginals and Europeans, and between French and English is made to seem flawlessly smooth and equitable. Sample lab token Aboriginal words are often cited as examples of this harmonious interaction and implicit assimilation of Native and French words and people into the dominant Canadian English.
Literacy was the province of the few, and historical texts represent the writing of a business certain exclusive segment of the society. Yet each of the canadian dictionaries preface their work with a history of the settlement of English Canada, and then proceed to a generalization explicitly or implicitly equating the history of the language and the history of the nation. Here are few examples: foreword, dchp, 1967: by its history a people is set apart, differentiated from the rest of humanity. That separateness of experience, in the bludgeoning of the Atlantic waves, the forest overburden of the. Lawrence valley, the long waterways to the west, the silence of the Arctic wastes, the lonesome horizons of the prairie, the vast imprisonment of the cordilleras, the trade and commerce with the original Canadians all this is recorded in our lab language. Introduction, gage canadian Dictionary, 1983,1997: The gage canadian Dictionary is thus a catalogue if the things relevant to the lives of Canadians at a certain point in history. It contains, therefore, some clues to the true nature of our Canadian Identity.
In a review of Scargills work by the American linguist raven. Mcdavid,., opposition to Scargills Canadianisms is founded on the observation that Scargill seems consciously to ignore the existence of the United States. He argues that in fact many words cited by Scargill are well known in various parts of the United States. Mcdavid provides a list of several specific examples from Scargills text. It seems disputable how many of the lexical claims made by Scargill are indeed incontrovertible. According to Mcdavid, this tendency to over-exaggerate difference vis-à-vis Americans is evident in Scargills discussion of pronunciation as well. To cite only one example: he argues that the phonemic coalescence of such pairs as cot and caught is not a peculiarly canadian phenomenon: it occurs in northeastern New England, the pittsburgh area, much of the rocky mountain and Pacific coast. Language, nation, and dictionary There have been a great number of accounts recently which question exactly what or whose history is reflected in language change.
Essay about English as an International Language - 5078 Palabras
Geikies preference was obviously for the British English spoken at home. In the 1950s and 1960s an awareness of, and a concomitant amount of scholarship, developed that was dedicated to the subject. In 1962 Gage publishing of Canada began its Dictionary of Canadian English series with The beginning than Dictionary in 1962, followed by The Intermediate dictionary, and The senior Dictionary in 1967. The dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (dchp), also published by gage, appeared in the same year. As was to be expected, the primary justification made for preparing Canadian Dictionaries was a lexical one. As Walter avis states in his introductory essay to The senior Dictionary (1967 That part of Canadian English which is neither British nor American is best illustrated by the vocabulary, for there are hundreds of words which are native to canada or which have meanings.
He goes on to elaborate that much of this new vocabulary is the result of the unique canadian landscape, flora, fauna, weather, etc. Scargill, writing a decade later, structures his book, a short History of Canadian English, around essentially the same idea: that the defining feature of Canadian English is its unique lexicon. He does add a brief chapter on grammar, but as he states the unique vocabulary is the most obvious and major item to answer the question thesis What is Canadian English?» It is impossible to object to most of the words Scargill presents as Canadian. The problem of defining a canadianism is one that dchp comments upon, citing a great difficulty in distinguishing between a canadianism, an Americanism, and a north Americanism. Nonetheless, they do in the end manage to come to a conclusion. One possible objection to Scargills word list is that it for the most part contains specific technical words or proper names, very limited regional words, or words that are either rare, obsolete or obsolescent. This method of attempting to establish the periphery of Canada as its center is one of the seemingly inevitable tendencies of discussions of Canadian English.
Our oldest political boundaries are clearly a representation of the fact that a common language at one time was one of the crucial determining factors in how a group of people delimited their community. In England they speak english, in France French and. But in Canada they do not speak canadian, nor do they speak canadian English, for there is hardly such a thing. Historically, the geographic isolation of these nation states must have contributed to the development of unique languages. The political reality of this century is that the existence of a language, or a unique variety of a language, cannot necessarily be equated with the existence of a unique political nation. To point to the problem more directly: a group of individuals speaking a shared language that is different from that of the majority of the people outside of that community, does not constitute a nation.
Thus, the desire to create a term such as Canadian English is born from a reversing of the process. There is a nation Canada. Therefore there must be a unique language to complement. The assertion of a national language is an assertion of political existence, as léandre bergeron makes very clear in his introduction to The quebecois Dictionary (1982). And while many writers on the subject are clear to point out that they are not discussing a canadian Language, but a variety of English, emphasis is placed on the uniqueness of that variety and its geographical integrity, essentially using, or allowing the terms. The role of dictionaries and lexicography in this assertion of a national language and thus nationhood is interesting, and as old as Johnson and his desire to enter into contest with united academies of France and Italy and permit English to rival those more polished. The term Canadian English has a pedigree dating back to 1857, at which time the reverend. Geikie referred to it as a corrupt dialect growing up amongst our population.
English as an International Language - essay by saadhamayoon
Finally, the role of predicting language change hardly seems an essential component of linguistics. Algeo returns to the term useful in his conclusion. He suggests that the common practice of equating English with uk english, and the English of England in particular, is one of these useful fictions. How or in what way he never makes clear. The suggestion that national boundaries are convenient regional groupings for studying a linguistic community is valid, and perhaps there is some usefulness in studying that linguistic community as such provided there is indeed a unique or binding set of linguistic features shared by that group. But by emphasizing Algeos remark that all linguistic varieties are fictions, we may argue that in certain circumstances, canadian English being one, the usefulness of the fiction is so limited, that not only is it almost purposeless but it can and does result in negative. The fundamental political problem is that a language, lab or a variety of a language, is too often equated with a nation. Léandre bergeron emphasizes this in his Charte de la langue québécoise by selecting as an epigraph this sentence by michelet: la langue es le signe principal dune nationalité.: Language is a principle symbol of nationality. The association between a unique language group and a unique political nation is not necessarily incorrect or worthless.
A language system, such as English, is a great abstraction, a fiction, analyzable into large essay areal varieties American, australian, British, canadian, northern Irish, Scots, welsh, and. But each of those is in turn an abstraction, a fiction. The point, Algeo argues, is that even though these terms American, australian, canadian English describe the reality that is in fact not there, they are nonetheless useful fictions. Useful is the key term in Algeos argument, but unfortunately he fails to adequately define in what way these fictions are useful. The only definition of usefulness he offers is this: without such fictions there can be no linguistics, nor any science. To describe, to explain, and to predict requires that we suppose there are stable things behind our discourse. This explanation hardly seems to clarify the situation. The claim that the fictions of national Englishes are useful because they are the foundation for linguistics is a tautology that serves more to undermine linguistics than to justify those fictions. Further, Algeos point that all science is based on certain necessary fictions is perhaps true, though usually science attempt to resolve known fictions into more stable, at least less fictional truths.
be described as divergent forms of modern Latin, so it would be helpful to think of the language of Oxford and the language of Harvard as divergent forms of modern English. It is perhaps a pity, from the point of view of international good feelings, that the two forms have not diverged a little further. At any rate, when an Englishman can learn to think of American as a language, and not merely as a ludicrously unsuccessful attempt to speak as he himself speaks, when he can learn to have for American only the normal intolerance of the provincial mind. Americans realize absurdity of the English attitude toward their language, nevertheless they remain deeply annoyed. This is natural, for a mans language is his very soul, it is his thoughts and almost all his consciousness. Laugh at a mans language and you have laughed at the man himself in the most inclusive sense. This statement may refer to any. Another American linguist john Algeo states in his essay a meditation on the varieties of English, that all linguistic varieties are fictions.
American English is the degenerative variety of the English spoken in the United States. It is different from English in pronunciation, intonation, spelling, vocabulary and sometimes even grammar! An Englishman goes to the town center to see a film while an American goes downtown to see a movie. Englishman needs a pen he would ask you: "have you got a pen, please?" but the American would say do you have a pen?" Australian and New zealand. English, also called Australian English, are very similar. Especially in pronunciation they are also similar to British English, but there are differences in vocabulary and slang. Many terms, such as kangaroo, dingo, wombat and boomerang, come from the Aboriginal language and many others from the cockney dialect spoken by the first settlers, The londoners. English is different both from American and from British English. Herbert Agar wrote in his article in 1931: The English should try to cope with their philological ignorance.
English as an international language Write a critical note on the
English is the second most widely spoken language in the world. It is the official language of The United Kingdom, Ireland, The United States, canada, jamaica, south Africa, australia and report New zealand and it is widely spoken. It is the language of international business and science, of aviation and shipping. As so many people speak english in so many countries, there are many different "Englishes". The best form of English is called Standard. English and is the language of educated English speakers. Bbc, the Universities, uses it and it is often called queens English.