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Microblogging and social networking sites that limit the number of characters in a message (most famously Twitter, where the 140-character limit can be quite restrictive in languages that rely on alphabets, including English) are potential outlets for medial capitals. Using camel case between words reduces the number of spaces, and thus the number of characters, in a given message, allowing more content to fit into the limited space. Hashtags, especially long ones, often use camel case to maintain readability (e.g. CollegeStudentProblems is easier to read than collegestudentproblems). In website urls, spaces are percent-encoded as "20 making the address longer and less human readable. By omitting spaces, camel case does not have this problem. Readability studies edit camel case has been criticised as negatively impacting readability due to the removal of spaces and uppercasing of every word.

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For this reason, some programmers prefer to treat abbreviations as if they were lowercase words and write "oldHtmlFile "parseDbmXml" or "sqlServer". However, this can make it harder to recognise that a given word is intended as an acronym. 31 wiki link markup edit camel case is used in some wiki markup languages for terms that should be automatically linked to other wiki pages. This convention was originally used in Ward Cunningham 's original wiki software, wikiwikiweb, and can be activated in most other wikis. Some wiki engines such as Tiddlywiki, trac and Pmwiki make use of it in the default settings, but usually also provide a configuration mechanism or plugin to disable. Wikipedia formerly used camel case linking as well, but switched to explicit link markup using square brackets and many other wiki sites have done the same. Some wikis that do not use camel case linking may still use the camel case as a naming convention, such as AboutUs. Other uses edit The niem registry requires that xml data elements use upper camel case and xml attributes use lower camel case. Most popular command-line interfaces and scripting languages cannot easily handle file artwork names that contain embedded spaces (usually requiring the name to be put in"s). Therefore, users of those systems often resort to camel case (or underscores, hyphens espionage and other "safe" characters) for compound file names like myjobResume.

For some languages (such outsiders as Mesa, pascal, modula, java and Microsoft 's. Net ) this practice is recommended by the language developers or by authoritative manuals and has therefore become part of the language's "culture". Style guidelines often distinguish between upper and lower camel case, typically specifying which variety should be used for specific kinds of entities: variables, record fields, methods, procedures, types, etc. These rules are sometimes supported by static analysis tools that check source code for adherence. The original Hungarian notation for programming, for example, specifies that a lowercase abbreviation for the "usage type" (not data type) should prefix all variable names, with the remainder of the name in upper camel case; as such it is a form of lower camel case. Programming identifiers often need to contain acronyms and initialisms that are already in uppercase, such as "old html file". By analogy with the title case rules, the natural camel case rendering would have the abbreviation all in uppercase, namely "oldhtmlfile". However, this approach is problematic when two acronyms occur together (e.g., "parse dbm xml" would become "parsedbmxml or when the standard mandates lower camel case but the name begins with an abbreviation (e.g. "sql server" would become "sqlserver.

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28 (1978) WordStar (1979) MasterCard, sportsCenter, visiCalc (1980) EchoStar (1982) MicroProse, wordPerfect (1983) NetWare (1984) BellSouth, laserJet, macWorks, iden (1985) Pagemaker, eastEnders (1986) SpaceCamp (1987) ClarisWorks, hyperCard, powerPoint (1990) HarperCollins, seatac, iconic WorldWideWeb During the dot-com bubble of the late 1990s, the lowercase prefixes "e". In 1998, dave yost suggested that chemists use medial capitals to aid readability of long chemical names,. Write AmidoPhosphoRibosylTransferase instead of amidophosphoribosyltransferase. 30 This usage was not widely adopted. Camelcase is sometimes used for abbreviated names of certain neighborhoods,. New York city neighborhoods soho ( so uth of ho uston Street) and Tribeca ( Tri angle be low ca nal proposal Street) and San Francisco's soma ( so uth of ma rket). Such usages erode quickly, so the neighborhoods are now typically rendered as Soho, tribeca, and Soma. Internal capitalization has also been used for other technical codes like hela (1983). Current usage in computing edit Programming and coding edit main article: Naming convention (programming) The use of medial caps for compound identifiers is recommended by the coding style guidelines of many organizations or software projects.

The Smalltalk language, which was developed originally on the Alto and became quite popular in the early 1980s, may according to whom? have been instrumental in spreading the style outside parc. Camel case was also used by convention for many names in the postScript page description language (invented by Adobe systems founder and ex-parc scientist John Warnock as well as for the language itself. In addition, niklaus Wirth, the inventor of Pascal, came to appreciate camel case during a sabbatical at parc and used it in Modula, his next programming language. Spread to mainstream usage edit Whatever its origins within the computing world, the practice spread in the 1980s and 1990s, when the advent of the personal computer exposed hacker culture to the world. Camel case then became fashionable for corporate trade names, initially in technical fields; mainstream usage was well established by 1990: (1962) PolyGram, formerly one of the major labels of the music industry. (1971) AeroVironment (1976) InterCity 125 (1977) CompuServe, unitedHealthCare (now UnitedHealthcare).

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This convention remains in use in these languages, and is also common in program names entered on a command line, as in Unix. However, this solution was not adequate for mathematically-oriented languages such as fortran (1955) and algol (1958 which used the hyphen as an infix subtraction operator. These early languages instead allowed identifiers to contain unrestricted embedded spaces, determining the end of the identifier by context. This approach was abandoned in later languages due to the complexity it adds to tokenization. (fortran initially restricted identifiers to no more than six characters, effectively preventing multi-word identifiers except those made of very short words, such as "go to"goto".) Exacerbating the problem, dreams common punched card character sets of the time were uppercase only and lacked other special characters. It was only in the late 1960s that the widespread adoption of the ascii character set made both lowercase and the underscore character _ universally available. Some languages, notably traits c, promptly adopted underscores as word separators, and identifiers such as end_of_file are still prevalent in C programs and libraries (as well as in later languages influenced by c, such as Perl and Python ).

However, some languages and programmers chose to avoid underscores—among other reasons to prevent confusing them with whitespace —and adopted camel case instead. Charles Simonyi, who worked at Xerox parc in the 1970s and later oversaw the creation of Microsoft's Office suite of applications, invented and taught the use of Hungarian Notation, one version of which uses the lowercase letter(s) at the start of a (capitalized) variable name. One account citation needed claims that the camel case style first became popular at Xerox parc around 1978, with the mesa programming language developed for the xerox Alto computer. This machine lacked an underscore key, and the hyphen and space characters were not permitted in identifiers, leaving camel case as the only viable scheme for readable multiword names. The parc mesa language manual (1979) included a coding standard with specific rules for upper and lower camel case that was strictly followed by the mesa libraries and the Alto operating system.

Camel case is often used to transliterate initialisms into alphabets where two letters may be required to represent a single character of the original alphabet,. History of modern technical use edit Chemical formulae edit The first systematic and widespread use of medial capitals for technical purposes was the notation for chemical formulae invented by the Swedish chemist Jacob Berzelius in 1813. To replace the multitude of naming and symbol conventions used by chemists until that time, he proposed to indicate each chemical element by a symbol of one or two letters, the first one being capitalized. The capitalization allowed formulae like "NaCl" to be written without spaces and still be parsed without ambiguity. 22 23 Berzelius' system continues to be used, augmented with three-letter symbols such as " uue " for unconfirmed or unknown elements and abbreviations for some common substituents (especially in the field of organic chemistry, for instance " Et " for "ethyl. This has been further extended to describe the amino acid sequences of proteins and other similar domains.


Early use in trademarks edit since the early 20th century, medial capitals have occasionally been used for corporate names and product trademarks, such as Computer programming edit In the 1970s and 1980s, medial capitals were adopted as a standard or alternative naming convention for multi-word. The precise origin of the convention in computer programming has not yet been settled. A 1954 conference proceedings 26 occasionally informally referred to ibm's Speedcoding system as "SpeedCo". Christopher Strachey 's paper on gpm (1965 27 shows a program that includes some medial capital identifiers, including "NextCh" and "WriteSymbol". Multiple-word descriptive identifiers with embedded spaces such as end of file or char table cannot be used in most programming languages because the spaces between the words would be parsed as delimiters between tokens. The alternative of running the words together as in endoffile or chartable is difficult to understand and possibly misleading; for example, chartable is an English word (able to be charted). Some early programming languages, notably lisp (1958) and cobol (1959 addressed this problem by allowing a hyphen - to be used between words of compound identifiers, as in "end-of-file lisp because it worked well with prefix notation (a lisp parser would not treat a hyphen.

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For example, in transliterated Hebrew, ha'ivri means "the hebrew person" house or "the jew" and b'Yerushalayim means "in Jerusalem". In Tibetan proper names like rLobsang, the "r" stands for a prefix glyph in the original script that functions as tone marker rather than a normal letter. Another example is tsIurku, a latin transcription the of the Chechen term for the capping stone of the characteristic Medieval defensive towers of Chechenia and Ingushetia ; the capital letter "I" here denoting a phoneme distinct from the one transcribed as "i". In abbreviations edit medial capitals are traditionally used in abbreviations to reflect the capitalization that the words would have when written out in full, for example in the academic titles PhD or BSc. In German, the names of statutes are abbreviated using embedded capitals,. StGB (Strafgesetzbuch) for Criminal Code, patG (Patentgesetz) for Patent Act, bverfG (Bundesverfassungsgericht) for Federal Constitutional court, or the very common GmbH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung) for Company with Limited liability. In this context, there can even be three or more "CamelCase" capitals,. In tzbfG for teilzeit- und Befristungsgesetz (Act on Part-Time and Limited Term Occupations). In French, camel case acronyms such as oulipo (1960) were favored for a time as alternatives to initialisms.

essay readability

This convention is also used by several written Bantu languages (e.g., kiswahili, " Swahili language isiZulu, " Zulu language and several indigenous languages of Mexico (e.g. Nahuatl, totonacan, mixeZoque, and some Oto-manguean languages ). In Dutch, when capitalizing the digraph ij, interesting both the letter i and the letter j are capitalized, for example in the countryname ijsland. In English, medial capitals are usually only found in Scottish or Irish "Mac-" or "Mc-" names, where for example macDonald, McDonald, and Macdonald are common spelling variants of the same name, and in Anglo-norman "Fitz-" names, where for example both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald are found. In their English style guide The king's English, first published in 1906,. Fowler suggested that medial capitals could be used in triple compound words where hyphens would cause ambiguity—the examples they give are kingMark-like (as against King Mark-like ) and Anglo-southAmerican (as against Anglo-south American ). However, they described the system as "too hopelessly contrary to use at present." 21 In transliterations edit In the scholarly transliteration of languages written in other scripts, medial capitals are used in similar situations.

call it HumpyCase at first, before i settled on CamelCase. I had been calling it CamelCase for years. The citation above was just the first time i had used the name on usenet." 19 Traditional use in natural language edit In word combinations edit The use of medial capitals as a convention in the regular spelling of everyday texts is rare, but. In Italian, pronouns can be suffixed to verbs, and because the honorific form of second-person pronouns is capitalized, this can produce a sentence like non ho trovato il tempo di risponderle i have not found time to answer you" - where le means "to you. In German, the medial capital letter i, called Binnen-i, is sometimes used in a word like studentInnen students to indicate that both Studenten male students and Studentinnen female students are intended simultaneously. However, mid-word capitalisation does not conform to german orthography ; the previous example could be correctly written using parentheses as Student(inn)en, analogous to "congress(wo)man" in English. 20 In Irish, camelcase is used when an inflectional prefix is attached to a proper noun, for example i nGaillimh in Galway from gaillimh galway an tAlbanach the Scottish person from Albanach Scottish person and go hÉirinn to Ireland from Éire ireland. In recent Scots gaelic orthography, a hyphen has been inserted: an t-Albannach.

Microsoft, 2 use the term camel case only for lower camel case. Pascal case means only upper camel case. Camel case is distinct from, title case, which capitalises all words but retains the spaces between them, and writers from. Tall Man lettering, which uses capitals to emphasize the differences between similar-looking words such as "prednisone" and "prednisolone". The name "CamelCase" is not related to the "Camel book the popular nickname of the book programming Perl due to the picture of a camel on its cover, which uses all-lowercase identifiers with underscores (sometimes called snake case ) in its sample code. Contents Variations and synonyms edit The original name of the practice, used in media studies, grammars and the Oxford English Dictionary, was "medial capitals". Other names such as "InterCaps" or "CamelCase" are relatively recent and more common in computer-related communities. Other synonyms include: BumpyCaps 4 NerdCaps 4 camelBack (or camel-back) notation 5 or CamelCaps 6 CapitalizedWords or CapWords for upper camel case in Python 7 compoundNames 8 Embedded Caps (or Embedded Capitals) 9 HumpBack (or hump-back) notation 10 InterCaps or intercapping 11 (abbreviation of Internal. 4 The earliest known occurrence of the term "InterCaps" on Usenet is in an April 1990 post to the group mputers by avi rappoport.

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CamelCase is named after the "humps" of its capital letters, similar to the humps. Camel case (stylized as camelCase or, camelCase ; literature also known as camel caps or more formally as medial capitals ) is the practice of writing compound words or phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital. Common examples include " iPhone " ebay fedEx dreamWorks and harperCollins ". It is also sometimes used in online usernames such as "JohnSmith and to make multi-word domain names more legible, for example in advertisements. Some systems prefer camel case with the first letter capitalised, others not. For clarity, this article calls the two alternatives upper camel case (initial uppercase letter, also known. Pascal case ) and lower camel case (initial lowercase letter). Some people and organizations, notably.


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