Although, suicide is a singular act and almost everyone contemplates suicide at one point or the other, it is not only a problem of the person involved alone but a problem of the family and the society as well. However, it remains a taboo in most society and has a very negative connotation till today. Suicide today has become one of the most alarming trends in the mizo society. Although the suicide rates in aizawl may not be as high as some of the states in India, it nevertheless needs urgent attention since there is an alarming increase in the suicide rates when compared to the previous years. The law enforcement officials in mizoram described the increase of suicide rate in the state, especially in the capital aizawl, as disturbing and alarming. Nearly five people on average commit suicide each month last year among whom the majority were between the ages of 20 and. . The report also states that an average of more than two cases of suicide occurs every week in aizawl district, having a population of barely four lakh (2011 census) and that the majority of those who commit suicide are from aizawl city, having a population.
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They experience the pain of "sudden loss, shame, guilt and self-blame." Relatives and friends are emotionally wounded and they themselves become high risk until proven otherwise. . Even though people have been committing suicide since the beginning of recorded history and still continues to do so, the suicide rate has increased enormously to a point that it needs urgent attention. The who report states, every year, almost one million people die from suicide; a global mortality rate of 16 per 100,000, or one death every 40 seconds. In the last 45 years suicide rates have increased by 60 worldwide. Suicide is among the three leading causes of death among those aged 15-44 years in some countries, and the second leading cause of death in the 10-24 years age group; these figures do not include suicide attempts which are up to 20 times more frequent. suicide is one of many choices open to human beings. Joost meerloo asserts, "Eighty per cent of people admit to having played with suicidal ideas." Earl. Grollman also opines essay that every individual has a tendency to self-murder, which varies in degree of intensity from person to person and from one society to another. . However, a sound, healthy and well integrated personality terminate such kind of thought and it does not stay with them for long. . With regards to an instinct of self-destruction, sigmund Freud believes there are two kinds of drives in human beings one is the life instinct/drive or Eros and the other the death instinct/drive or thanatos, and there is a constant shifting of the balance of power.
Though suicide was rare in the traditional essay mizo community, there is an increasing suicide rate in the recent times, particularly among the youths. This increase in suicide has become a disturbing phenomenon and needs to be addressed with adequate research and practical approach for the welfare of the members of the mizo community. Elaboration of the Problem "Suicide is a singular act with a plural effect writes John. Hewett in his book after suicide. Ones act of suicide can send many other people into serious shock and grief. . Yet, this does not stop many from attempting to end their lives even though they may have not done it to hurt others. The level of shock and grief suicide causes to the loved ones and friends is usually much greater than the pain in a natural death.
Schools have become much more attractive places for children with the installation of outdoor play equipments such as colorful slides, see saw and swings. Children seem to enjoy the mid day meal provided to them on daily basis and poor and working parents are greatly relieved from their burden. Schools with inadequate number of teachers have been equipped with additional teachers. We can, therefore, conclude that quantitative expansion and improvement have been achieved to an appreciable extent in mizoram due to the intervention of ssa. However, mizoram has only reached the stage where quantitative expansion and improvement has been achieved. A time has come when mizoram has to give due attention and priority to qualitative improvement. Improved infrastructural facilities, high rate of enrolment retention, low rate of drop out and out of school children are not the ends but the means to realize the goals of qualitative elementary education. The state government and the ssa authorities should not be complacent with the achievement of only quantitative expansion of elementary education; rather they should take care of aspects which can provide quality education to children in the primary and upper primary schools). Chapter 1, introduction, statement of the Problem, suicide is a disturbing global phenomenon which is a serious concern for all societies.
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The role of the civil society is very important for the realization of universal elementary education. For the success of the ssa mission, the common people, voluntary organizations, ngos, etc. Has an important role to play. With reference to the aizawl District, there are the voluntary organizations like the. Which had signed an agreement with the ssa for working together for the realization of the goals and objectives of the ssa mission especially in the areas like identification of Out Of School Children, Children with Special needs, promotion of Girls Education, and more. The ssa and these voluntary organizations work together in creating awareness and also to change the mindsets of the people against the Children with Special needs. Also, the mizoram Presbyterian Church works constructively new with the ssa in the promotion of its goals.
It is through these organizations that the common people play an important role in the ssa mission. Conclusion achievements made by mizoram in the field of elementary education, as a result of intervention of ssa, are very much appreciable. Enrollment and retention rate are appreciably high. Dropout rate and the number of out of school children are also very low as compared to other states of the country. A good number of new school buildings have come up and existing school buildings have improved a lot.
It is an initiative to universalize and improve quality of education through decentralized and context specific planning and a process based, time bound implementation strategy. The programme lays emphasis on bridging all gender and social category gaps at elementary education level with time bound objectives. Its intention is clear from the name itself sarva meaning all, Shiksha meaning education, and Abhiyan meaning campaign. Ssa adopts, the bottom-up process of planning, wherein the felt needs of the served communities and educational needs of learners are well taken care of and the plan fits into the broad framework of ssa. In view of the fact that the desired improvement and sustenance of the improved efficiency level cannot be achieved without the active involvement of the community in the schooling system, ssa has emphasized the involvement of local people and stakeholders in planning. This also ensures reflection of local specificity, which is essential for achieving the goals of the programme.
For a brief understanding of the activities of the ssa mission, it is important to highlight some of its objectives * The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision. Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level. ssa seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. Ssa has a special focus on girls education and children with special needs. Ssa also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide. Role of civil society.
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The issues concerns and challenges of teacher education are also discussed in the writing report. It suggests that the existing may be strengthened with the help of additional inputs like infrastructural facilities and human resources. The report suggests upward mobility of teachers. It supports the idea of lifting of ban on new recruitments and avoidance of contractual appointment of teachers as far as practicable. The report suggests that the government should encourage professional development of school and college teachers by providing facilities like study leave, research grants, etc. Ssa sarva shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a comprehensive and integrated flagship programme of government of India to attain Universal Elementary Education (uee covering the entire country in a mission mode. Ssa has been launched in in partnership with the State governments and Local Self governments. The programme aims to provide useful and relevant, elementary education to all children in the 6 14 age group by 2010.
The report also points out that with a view to achieve all-round development of the students, school curricula should have definite components of health and physical education, art education and work education. The report makes a particular reference to the provisions under Section 29 of the right to Education Act 2009 and suggests there should not be any public examination for the students from Class I to viii but with a continuous process of monitoring and comprehensive. A system of grading replaces the marking system. This system is currently being introduced in most private words and govt. Schools today with great enthusiasm from the teachers, parents and the students. The report suggests that there is an urgent need to boost enrolment of students in the colleges. As such, it recommended that so of the unviable colleges with poor enrolment records may be merged with other better functioning adjacent colleges. It also suggested that about 20 of the annual budget of higher education may be earmarked for infrastructural and instructional development in the colleges.
The report suggests that in tune with the provisions and spirit of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009, the school education in the state may be readjusted. The national programmes like the ssa need to be implemented in letter and spirit. The report puts particular emphasis on pre-school education and recommends that institutions like scert may step in to help the state in this respect with documentation and research. The report emphasizes on the merits and applicability of open and distance learning system in supplementing the conventional and classroom based formal education and also in providing avenues for vocational education in the state. It may be pointed out here that the north-east region in general and mizoram in particular could be developed as Indias hub for quality handicrafts and forest-based products. The report deals with some of the basic concerns of curriculum. In this connection, extra emphasis may have to be given on science and mathematics education with the application of innovative methods, kits and practices.
Missionaries were responsible for the growth and institutionalization of education in the state. The first educational institution in mizoram was initiated by the missionaries in the aizawl region in 1897. The educational scenario in mizoram today as viewed from the angle of literacy is very promising. 58 and stands 2nd among the states in India, next only to kerala, according to the 2011 Census. It is really not a figure we can much be proud of as education should be viewed from the angle of its contribution in improving the quality of life of the people and thereby eradicating poverty and accelerating economic growth, in which mizoram is lagging. The main issue is that the current educational system is not able to produce employable graduates who can compete with graduates from other parts of the country. This results in the increase in unemployed graduates every year. State education reforms commission-mizoram educational system of any society needs regular writing changes and reforms in the light of the emerging issues, concerns and challenges.
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Education is the most vital process that contributes to all round development of a society. It not only brings about the best in human personality, but can also be the medium of peace and progress of a nation. Education is a critical factor in improving the quality of life of the people, in eradicating poverty and accelerating economic growth. It is the lifeline of any modern day civilization or country. Without education, we study cannot see beyond ourselves and our narrow surroundings to the reality of global interdependence. Without education, we cannot realize how peoples of other races and religions share the same dreams, the same hopes. Without education, we cannot recognize the university of human aims and aspirations. Mizoram is among those states where education was first initiated and popularized by the British.