Ivan pavlov accidently discovered classical conditioning while researching digestive patterns with dogs. He used to put meat powder in the mouths of dogs that had experimental tubes in them which measured bodily response. He discovered that the dogs would start to salivate before as soon as the person feeding them walked into the room. His discovery states that we develop responses to stimuli that do not occur naturally. For example, when we touch something that is hot our instinct is to pull our hand away; this is not a reaction that needs to be learnt. Another type of learning, which is closely related to classical conditioning, is operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the process of learning through natural consequences of actions. It derives from how we respond to what we are presented with in our environment.
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Such traits have been visible in the person for such a long time that in any situation the person will react in the same manner. For example, high iq is a dispositional trait, so if a parent has a high iq it most likely that a child will acquire the same trait from childhood. Children who acquire that trait from their parents are disposed to a better beginning compared to the children who develop the personality trait based on their exposure due to their environment. Learning Theories learning is usually defined as a process that combines cognitive, emotional and environmental experiences and influences, which enhance or produce changes in a persons knowledge, values and skills. The process of learning focuses on what occurs purpose when learning takes place some explanations of what occurs are considered to be learning theories, these try to describe how people and animals learn, which in return allow us to understand the process of learning. There are three categories in which learning theories fall under: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Behaviorism concentrates on the observable conditions of learning. Cognitivism looks past behavior and concentrates more on brain-based learning. Lastly constructivism focuses its views on learning as a process where the learner is active and builds new concepts. As we learn we change the way we see our environment, the way we understand the incoming information, which leads to the way in which we behave. Classical and Operant conditioning are two major types of learning.
Therefore a person who is quiet and reserved might be high in introversion, while a person who is sociable and outgoing is high in extraversion. Neuroticism is the tendency an individual has to get upset or emotional, while emotional stability means that an individuals emotions stay constant. Eysenck added Psychoticism after studying people who suffered from mental illness. People who are high in this trait have trouble dealing with reality and are antisocial, aggressive, manipulative and unable to empathize with others. Personality plays an important role in how we react to when we are placed in a situation, which calls for an individual to prevail. For instance, a person who is friendly and easy to approach usually has many friends and has an easy time making friends than someone who lacks the friendship points trait. The person who lacks the friendship trait must modify his or her personality by the current situation that he or she is in, while the person who has the trait does not need to modify his personally at all. Characteristics of personality, which are featured by the dispositional theory, are constant that changes in the environment and things that happen unexpected do not call for any modification.
He developed 3 levels for dispositions: cardinal, central, and secondary. Cardinal dispositions are dispositions that only a few people have, they are obvious characteristics, and these characteristics are usually run their proposal lives. Everyone has many central dispositions. Central dispositions are the five to ten most obvious characteristics in which a persons most closest friends and family describe that person. Secondary dispositions are not as obvious but everyone possesses more of them. These dispositions occur on a regular basis and are responsible for the way a person behaves. Hans Eysenck developed a personality-based model based on three universal life traits: introversion/extraversion, neuroticism/ emotional stability, psychoticism. Introversion directs the attention on inner experiences, while extraversion focuses the attention toward other people and the environment.
Allport believed that it was important to differentiate people from the general traits they posses and look at their individuality, it is that reason why Allport disagrees with trait and factor theories, because those theories do not focus on the individual instead they focus. Allport concentrated his studies solely to individuals that he named the study of the individual morphogenic science and compared that to the study of groups, which is called nomothetic (Feist feist, 2009). Although Allport took suggestions from other theorist he believed that no one was able to adequately explain the uniqueness of an individual. Allports definition of personality was the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought (Feist feist, 2009). In other words according to Allport personality is both physical and psychological. He made it clear to distinguish between common and personal traits. Common traits are general characteristics held in common by many people, while personal traits or personal dispositions are traits held by only one person (Feist feist, 2009). Allport, like freud and many other theorist developed levels for his dispositions.
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Retrieved from http beingdrphoenix. Personality Analysis Paper University of Phoenix Psy 405 August 22, 2011 Personality Analysis Is a persons behavior analyzed by the situation they are in or is their behavior guided by their personality? For instance, if an individual who is usually calm and mellow turns aggressive during a sports game, is it safe to say that the aggressive behavior is a result of the sport or is that part of his personality? This can be either. Behavior can be understood by the persons personality as homework well as the environments that they are put in, when the situation they are in changes their personality changes to accommodate the situation, this can be classified as situational behavior. The dispositional theory tries to identify psychological characteristics that keep stability to an individual as different situations occur. Dispositions can affect the unconscious behaviors of an individual.
Yet learnt behavior can also be developed unconsciously and become a part of an individuals personality. This paper will analyze essays dispositional and learning theory as well as describe and examine the effects it has on personality. Disposition Theories According to Oxford Dictionary. Com the definition of Disposition is a persons inherent qualities of mind and character. we are all born with predisposed personalities that we inherit from our father and mother and according to gordon Allport every individual is unique.
Interpersonal Relational Aspects of Dispositional and learning Theories When it comes to the dispositional theory the researchers of this theory does not really discuss interpersonal relationships. Allports entire theory talk about self sustaining and everything that is a part of your personality comes from the choices you have made. In Eysenck, mcCrae, and Costa also does not talk about interpersonal relationships at all and only discuss self centeredness. On to the learning theory some of them do not discuss interpersonal relationships and some. For instance the social cognitive theory and the cognitive social learning theory discusses external factor that affect our personality which I believe includes interpersonal relationships but the behavioral analysis and the psychology of personal constructs do not talk about interpersonal relationships at all. Conclusion This paper has taught me a lot of information that I have not learned about before.
I believe that both of the main theories that I have discussed in this paper are very important to study and have all different believes about how personality develops and is affected. If I was asked which one i believe is correct or more important than the other I would have to say that the learning theories at least for me makes more sense than the dispositional theories. References feist,., amp; feist,. Theories of Personality, seventh Edition University of Phoenix Custom Edition ebook. New York city, ny: McGraw-Hill Company. The role of Personality in Affecting Situational Behavior.
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I believe that when it comes to the role of personality in affecting situational behavior you have to look at the situation. For instance when i am at the bar for karaoke my personality is ready to sing but if i am at the bar and there is not karaoke my personality wants me to get out of there as fast as I can because my personality. According to Sharpe (2012 When basic human needs go unmet, a motivating force from within develops to drive the person to get the need satisfied (para. I agree with this statement and believe that this is also a description of the role of personality in affecting situational behavior. Personality Characteristics Attributed to the dispositional and learning Theories In both theories the main personality characteristics are the environment and emotions. Both of theories state that the environment affects how our personality develops. For example my childhood environment was very bad from and affected my personality. Both theories state that our emotions affect our personalities all the time. For me my emotions affect my personality all the time for example when i am in a bad mood the bad part of my personality.
All of these theories are every important to me because i see how they can help people shape write their personality compared to the one in the dispositional theory. Compare and Contrast of Dispositional and learning Theories I believe after looking at all the theories that are a part of both the major theories they are all very different and they discuss different things. In all of the learning theories are explained in a way that is easy to understand but the dispositional theories are hard to understand. A comparison between these theories is that they deal with personality but they also state that personality is affected by different things. Another contrast that I believe is between the dispositional theories and the learning theories is that the learning theories were influenced by others in the world of psychology where as the dispositional theories were discovered on their own. I truly believe that both theories offer a lot of important information that should be studied because each theory shows how different things can shape and affect our personality. Description of the role of Personality has in Affecting Situational Behavior I found that personality depends largely upon an individuals experience and the perception the one is choosing to hold (Sharpe 2012, para 2).
by many people but. Skinner focused on the observable behaviors. The second theory that is a part of the learning theory of personality is the social cognitive theory by Albert Bandura. This theory takes chance encounters and fortuitous event seriously even while recognizing that these meeting and events do not invariably alter ones life path (Feist amp; feist, 2009). The third theory is the cognitive social learning theory by julian Rotter and Walter Mischel which is also a part of the learning theory of personality. When it comes to this theory rotter and Mischel each rest on the assumption that cognitive factors help shape how people will react to environmental forces. The last theory that is a part of the learning theory of personality is the psychology of personal constructs by george kelly. Kelly believed that all people anticipate events by the meanings or interpretation they place on those events (Feist amp; feist, 2009).
Lastly i will explain the interpersonal relational aspects associated with the theories I have offer selected. I personally have not learned anything about these two approaches of personality which is why i have chosen to discuss them. Definition of Dispositional Theory of Personality first to define the dispositional theory of personality is the fact that your nature like genetics and heritage has relatively permanent effects on how you present yourself to the world. The first theory that is a part of the dispositional theory of personality is the psychology of individual by gordon Allport. In this theory Allport emphasized the uniqueness of the individual. According to our text Allport believed that attempts to describe people in terms of general traits rob them of their unique individuality (Feist amp; feist, 2009). The other theory that is part of the dispositional theory of personality is the trait and factor theory by hans Eysenck, robert McCrae and paul Costa. To define this theory you have to understand that the researchers of this theory believe that five dominant traits continue to emerge from factor analytic techniques(Feist amp; feist, 2009). Definition of learning Theory of Personality to define the learning theory of personality it focuses on how people learning and acquire new knowledge.
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I will discuss the dispositional and learning theoretical approaches to personality. I will define each approach to personality, and I will define each theory that is a part of these approaches. I also will compare and contrast the dispositional and learning theoretical approaches of personality. I will describe the role of personality in affecting situational behavior when offer it comes to the dispositional and learning approaches to personality. I will examine the personality characteristics attributed to each of the theories I have chosen. We will write a custom essay sample. Personality Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you.