Administrative work is a full-time occupation, while work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career. The official is personally free to resign (cf. Champion (1975) states that the best persons perform their jobs closely associated with their personal competence, every staff will have jurisdiction over a specified work area, eliminating double work and develop a strong career orientation which follows into a strong organisational commitment and loyality. Because of determined salary development, staff has more stability in personal planning and as a result reduced anxiety. The employee receives organisational protection even in retirement. The management can expect continuous quality work from their staff because of selection by test and their appointment to positions because of their proficiency. The officials can be easy replaced, because of selection by test and the system of abstract rules. As a result the organisation becomes maximum efficiently and effectively (cf.
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The staff gets promoted by fixed career lines. Official are retained even if their skills become obsolete or they are not able to fulfill the job expectations. General Rules, the administration staff follows formal rules and procedures to ensure uniformity and in this way regulate the behavior of the official. There is a continuous rule-bound conduct of official business and a specified sphere of competence (jurisdiction) (cf. Regarding the official Weber writes the following characteristics:. They are personally free and subject to authority only with respect to their impersonal official obligations. The staff is organized in a clearly defined hierarchy of offices, with a clearly defined sphere of competence. The candidates are selected on the basis of technical qualifications, which is tested or they show their ability through certificates, technical training or diplomas. So they are appointed taglines and not elected. Promotion is dependent on the decision of a superior official. The official is subject to strict and systematic discipline and control in the conduct of the office.
Further the ideal type can be described by a essay complete absence of appropriation of his official position by the incumbent. Trained Experts, the administrative staff consists of officials who have received an adequate technical training. The official is given the authority necessary to carry out his assigned functions. There are no economic or social differences. The officials are employed due to their qualification. Full Working Capacity and career tracks. Officials carry out their work as a primary occupation. So they dont engage in secondary activities. They are employed by contract and receive regular fixed salary and pension according to their rank or seniority.
Division of Labor, each persons activities distributed in a fixed way as official duties with specific spheres of competence. The duties are broken into simple, routine, and well defined tasks. Office hierarchy, further bureaucracy is characterized by the hierarchical organization of offices, which means that each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. This implies that every official's responsibilities and authority are part of a vertical hierarchy of authority, with respective rights of supervision and appeal. All Administrative acts, decisions, and rules are formulated and recorded in files. Distinct Separation of members engelsk organizational and personal lives. The members of the administrative staff should be completely separated from ownership of the means of production or administration. The goal is to prevent them from interfering with the rational impersonal conduct of the organizational activities.
In this chapter will be the ideal type of bureaucracy and the characteristics of a bureaucrat described, to show later on the unintended consequences of this factors on people working in bureaucracies. Max Weber (1864-1920) was publishing about the ideal type of Bureaucracy. He is one of the most influential german social scientists and one of the greatest minds ever (cf. His bureaucracy model was a hypothetical rather than a factual description of the structure of organisations (cf. Webers ideal type has a all pervasive element, that through rational rules tries to achieve a maximum of efficiency. The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge is the specific rational element (cf. The ideal type of bureaucracy has the following characteristics:.
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Using a functionalist approach to the your topic, bureaucracy karl intends to create an efficient organisation from a rationalistic point of view. I will focus on the unintended outcomes of bureaucracy, the dysfunctions which show that there are irrational factors that are not easy to predict. I will describe in the theoretical part of this work the he ideal type of bureaucracy, to have a basis from which later on the negative outcomes are explained. The concept of personality will be described after this, which is used to compare in the second part the changes to a bureaucratic personality. The model of organizational learning from Hedberg (1981) will be the focus after that, to show how learning is occurring in organisations and which prerequisites are necessary for this.
The next step is the explanation of the model of Bosetzky and heinrich, which shows the consequences of inner acceptance of the bureaucratic socialization. Then I will show through the description of the work of Robert. Merton the development of a bureaucratic personality, including trained incapacity occupational psychosis, and the consequences of that for organizational learning. Then I will finish with an conclusion. Definitions and theoretical basis, in this chapter will be the ideal type of bureaucracy and the characteristics of a bureaucrat described, to show later on the unintended consequences of this factors on people working in bureaucracies. 2.1 The ideal type of Bureaucracy.
The subjective side of Science. A psychological inquiry into the Psychology of the Appolo moon Scientists. Table of contents, table of figures, figure 1: An sr model of how an Organization interacts with its environment. Figure 2: Figure 2: The model of Bosetzky/Heinrich (1989). Definitions and theoretical basis.1 The ideal type of Bureaucracy.2 The definition of Personality and possible development.3 organizational learning Hedberg (1981). The model of Bosetzky and heinrich.
The development of a bureaucratic personality.1 Characteristics of a bureaucratic personality.1.1 Trained incapacity.1.2 Occupational psychosis. Introduction, effective learning supplys organizations with the abilities to cope with problems. Learning is occuring when organizations interact with their environments: organizations develop their understanding of reality by observing the results of their acts (cf. Even and especially bureaucratic organizations need to learn, when taking into account a fast changing environment. Everybody of us has made his or her own experiences with bureaucracy in their everyday life. This seminar paper with the title The development of a bureaucratic personality-consequences for organizational learning will not focus on impacts on clients but on impacts on the members of organisation, especially on subordinates and the middle management. The aim of the seminar paper is to find out what negative consequences has bureaucracy on the personality of an individual and on organizational learning.
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Barnes., from dolby. The Scientific Ethos: a deviant viewpount. Archives Européennes de sociologie. Griffith., mullins. Coherent Social Groups in Scientific change. Kollinz., restivo. Piraty i politiki v matematike.
The Structure of Scientific Theories;. Science and the social Order (with a foreword. Normal'naja nauka i opasnosti, svjazannye s nej. Progress ot mifa čerez logos k nauke kak teoretiko-poznavatel'naja problema. Analiz naučnyx i vnenaučnyx form myšlenija. Mifičeskie formy myšlenija v nauke na primere ponjatij ultimate prostranstva, vremeni i zakona prirody. The Ambivalence of Scientists. The matthew Effect in Science. Principy naučnogo samoupravlenija v sovremennoj sociologii nauki.
i myslitel'nogo kollektiva. The function of Dogma in Scientific Research. Second Thoughts on Paradigms.
Turner has provided a major synthesis of his earlier work on the sociology of the body, established the idea of embodiment as fundamental to the sociology of health and summary illness, and pointed the way forward to new areas of cultural analysis. Ešče raz o predmete social'noj èpistemologii. Èpistemologija i filosofija nauki. Social'naja èpistemologija: k istorii i postanovke problemy. Idei, metody, programmy; pod red. The Institutional Imperatives of Science. Sociology of Science; ed/by. Social'naja teorija i social'naja struktura. Ètos nauki: ideal'nye reguljativy i povsednevnye realii.
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Bryan Turner's book provides a framework for the development of a new sub-field, namely the development of the body. Through an examination of various philosophical traditions (phenomenology, philosophical anthropology, structuralism and postmodernism) the book shows how the human body has been ignored or neglected by mainstream social theory. In attempting to integrate these different traditions, Professor Turner demonstrates how the absent body has impoverished, not only the sociology of health and illness but also the very foundations of sociology itself. There are three major aspects to this argument. Firstly, it is impossible to develop an adequate theory of social action without a conception of the embodied social agent. Secondly the idea of embodiment offers a fundamental critique of the positivistic side of the medical model of illness, and thus offers a new theoretical basis for medical sociology. Thirdly following the work of Michel foucault, turner demonstrates that medical practice functions as a moral discourse, which produces a regulation of the body. In providing a general mother account of the problem of the body in modern society, this study attempts to solve many of the existing epistemological and theoretical difficulties in social theories of the body.