In this fight, the Church hierarchy backed day's movement and Commonweal, a catholic journal that expressed a wide range of viewpoints, said that day's background positioned her well for her mission: "There are few laymen in this country who are so completely conversant with Communist. From the publishing enterprise came a " house of hospitality a shelter that provided food and clothing to the poor of the lower East Side and then a series of farms for communal living. 46 The movement quickly spread to other cities in the United States and to canada and the United Kingdom. More than 30 independent but affiliated Catholic Worker communities had been founded by 1941. 47 Beginning in 1935, the catholic Worker began publishing articles that articulated a rigorous and uncompromising pacifist position, breaking with the traditional Catholic doctrine of just war theory. The next year, the two sides that fought the Spanish civil War roughly approximated two of day's allegiances, with the Church allied with Franco fighting radicals of many stripes, the catholic and the worker at war with one another.
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42 Publication of the first issue was supported in part by a 1 donation from Sister Peter Claver, for whom a catholic Worker house was later named. 43 like many newspapers of the day, including those for which day had been writing, it was an unapologetic example of advocacy journalism. It provided coverage of strikes, explored working conditions, especially of women and blacks, and explicated papal teaching on social issues. 42 Its viewpoint was partisan and stories were designed to move its readers to take action locally, for example, by patronizing laundries recommended by the laundry workers' Union. Its advocacy of federal child labor laws put it at odds with the American Church hierarchy from its first issue, but day censored some of maurin's attacks on the Church hierarchy and tried to have a collection of the paper's issues presented to pope pius. 44 The paper's principal competitor both in distribution and ideology was the communist daily worker. Day opposed its atheism, its advocacy of "class hatred" and violent revolution, and its opposition to private property. The first issue of the catholic Worker asked: "Is it not possible to be radical and not atheist?" and celebrated its distribution in Union Square on may day as a direct challenge to the communists. Day defended government relief programs like the civilian Conservation Corps where that the communists ridiculed. The daily worker responded by mocking the catholic Worker for its charity work and for expressing sympathy for landlords when calling evictions morally wrong.
He had a vision of social justice and its with connection with the poor, which was partly inspired. He had a vision of action based on a sharing of ideas and subsequent action by the poor themselves. Maurin was deeply versed in the writings of the Church Fathers and the papal documents on social matters that had been issued by pope leo xiii and his successors. Maurin provided day with the grounding in Catholic theology of the need for social action they both felt. Years later day described how maurin also broadened her knowledge by bringing "a digest of the writings of Kropotkin one day, calling my attention especially to fields, factories, and Workshops. Day observed: "I was familiar with Kropotkin only through his Memoirs of a revolutionist, which had originally run serially in the Atlantic Monthly. She wrote: "Oh, far day of American freedom, when Karl Marx could write for the morning Tribune in New York, and Kropotkin could not only be published in the Atlantic, but be received as a guest into the homes of New England Unitarians, and. 40 41 The catholic Worker movement started when the first issue of the catholic Worker appeared on may 1, 1933, priced at one cent, and published continuously since then. It was aimed at those suffering the most in the depths of the Great Depression, "those who think there is no hope for the future and announced to them that "the catholic Church has a social ere are men of God who are working not.
When she decided to writing take a greater role in resume social activism and Catholicism. During the hunger strikes. In December 1932, she noted that she was filled with pride watching the marchers, but she couldn't do much with her conversion. She writes in her autobiography: "I could write, i could protest, to arouse the conscience, but where was the catholic leadership in the gathering of bands of men and women together, for the actual works of mercy that the comrades had always made part. To offer a prayer to find a way to use her gifts and talents to help her fellow workers and the poor. 38 The catholic Worker movement edit In 1932, day met Peter maurin, the man she always credited as the founder of the movement with which she is identified. Maurin, a french immigrant and something of a vagabond, had entered the Brothers of the Christian Schools in his native france, before emigrating, first to canada, then to the United States. Despite his lack of formal education, maurin was a man of deep intellect and decidedly strong views.
Batterham refused to attend the ceremony, and his relationship with day became increasingly unbearable, as her desire for marriage in the Church confronted his antipathy to organized religion, catholicism most of all. After one last fight in late december, day refused to allow him to return. On December 28, she had herself baptized with Sister Aloysia as her godparent. 34 35 In the summer of 1929, to put the situation with Batterham behind her, day accepted a job writing film dialogue for Pathé motion Pictures, and moved to los Angeles with Tamar. A few months later, following the 1929 stock market crash, her contract was not renewed. She returned to new York via a sojourn in Mexico, and a family visit in Florida. Day supported herself as a journalist, writing a gardening column for the local paper, the Staten Island Advance, and features articles and book reviews for several Catholic publications, like commonweal. 36 37 It was during one of her assignments for The commonweal in Washington,.
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Initially day lived a bohemian life. In February 1921, 28 after ending an unhappy love affair with lionel moise, and having an abortion, she married Berkeley tobey in a civil ceremony. She spent a year with him in Europe, removed from politics, focusing on art and literature, and writing a semi-autobiographical novel, The Eleventh Virgin (1924 based on her affair with moise. In its "Epilogue she tried to draw lessons about the status of women from her experience: "I thought I was a free and emancipated young woman, and found out I wasn't at all. Freedom is just friend a modernity gown, a new trapping that we women affect to capture the man we want." 29 She later called it a "very bad book." 30 The sale of the movie rights to the novel gave her 2,500, and she bought. 31 soon she found a new lover, forster Batterham, an activist and biologist, who joined her there on weekends. She lived there from 1925 to 1929, entertaining friends and enjoying a romantic relationship that foundered when she took passionately to motherhood and religion.
32 day, who had thought herself sterile following her abortion, was elated to find she was pregnant in mid-1925, while batterham dreaded fatherhood. While she visited her mother in Florida, separating from Batterham for several months, she intensified her exploration of Catholicism. When she returned to Staten Island, batterham found her increasing devotion, attendance at Mass, and religious reading incomprehensible. Soon after the birth of their daughter Tamar Teresa, on March 4, 1926, day encountered a local Catholic Religious Sister, sister Aloysia,. C., 33 and with her help educated herself in the catholic faith, and had her baby baptized in July 1927.
17 Her reading was chiefly in a christian radical social direction. 17 She avoided campus social life, and supported herself rather than rely on money from her father, buying all her clothing and shoes from discount stores. 18 She left the university after two years, and moved to new York city. 17 Social activism edit She settled on the lower East Side and worked on the staff of several Socialist publications, including The liberator, 19 The masses, and The call. She "smilingly explained to impatient socialists that she was 'a pacifist even in the class war.
20 years later, day described how she was pulled in different directions: "I was only eighteen, so i wavered between my allegiance to socialism, syndicalism (the. When I read Tolstoy i was an Anarchist. My allegiance to The call kept me a socialist, although a left-wing one, and my Americanism inclined me to the. Movement." 21 22 She celebrated the february revolution in Russia in 1917, the overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a reformist government. 23 In november 1917, she was arrested for picketing at the White house on behalf of women's suffrage as part of a campaign called the silent Sentinels organized by Alice paul and the national Women's Party. Sentenced to 30 days in jail, she served 15 days before being released, ten of them on a hunger strike. 24 25 She spent several months in Greenwich Village, where she became close to eugene o'neill, whom she later credited with having produced "an intensification of the religious sense that was in me". 26 She had a love affair of several years with mike gold, a radical writer who later became a prominent Communist. 27 She maintained friendships with such prominent American Communists as Anna louise Strong, and Elizabeth Gurley flynn, who became the head of the communist Party usa.
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She was taken with the liturgy and its music. She studied the catechism and was baptized and confirmed in that church in 1911. 14 day eksempel was an avid reader in her teens, particularly fond of Upton Sinclair 's The jungle. She worked from one book to another, noting Jack london 's mention of Herbert Spencer in Martin Eden, and then from Spencer to darwin and Huxley. She learned about anarchy and extreme poverty from Peter Kropotkin, who promoted a belief in cooperation in contrast to darwin's competition for survival. 15 She also enjoyed Russian literature in university, especially dostoevsky, tolstoy, and Gorky. 16 day read a lot of socially conscious work, which gave her a background for her future; it helped bolster her support for and involvement in social activism. In 1914, day attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on a scholarship. She was a reluctant scholar.
Her parents were married in an Episcopal church in Greenwich Village. 12 She had three brothers and a sister. In 1904, her father, who was a sports writer devoted to horse racing, took a position with a newspaper in San Francisco. The family lived in oakland, california, until the san Francisco earthquake of 1906 destroyed the newspaper's facilities, and her father lost his job. From the spontaneous response to the earthquake's devastation, the self-sacrifice of neighbors in a time of crisis, day drew a lesson about individual action and Christian community. The family relocated to Chicago. 13 day's injury parents were nominal Christians who rarely attended church. As a young child, she showed a marked religious streak, reading the bible frequently. When she was ten she started to attend Church of Our saviour, an Episcopal church in the lincoln Park neighborhood of Chicago, after its rector convinced her mother to let day's brothers join the church choir.
Pope benedict xvi used her conversion story as an example of how to "journey towards faith. In a secularized environment." 4 Pope Francis included her in a short list of exemplary Americans, together with Abraham Lincoln, martin Luther King,., and Thomas Merton, in his address before the United States Congress. 9 The Church has opened the cause for day's possible canonization, which was accepted by the holy see for investigation. Due to this, the Church refers to her with the title of Servant of God. Contents biography edit early years edit dorothy may day was born on november 8, 1897, in the Brooklyn heights neighborhood of Brooklyn, new York. 10 She was born into a family described by one biographer as "solid, patriotic, and middle class". 11 Her father, john day, was a tennessee native of Irish heritage, while her mother, Grace satterlee, a native of upstate new York, was of English ancestry.
3, day's conversion is described in her autobiography, the long Loneliness. 4 1, day was also an active journalist, and described her social activism in her writings. In 1917 she was imprisoned as a member of suffragist. Alice paul's nonviolent, silent Sentinels. In the 1930s, day worked closely with points fellow activist. Peter maurin to establish the catholic Worker movement, a pacifist movement that combines direct aid for the poor and homeless with nonviolent direct action on their behalf. She practiced civil disobedience, which led to additional arrests in 1955, 5 1957, t the age of seventy-five. 2, as part of the catholic Worker movement, day co-founded the.
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This article is about the social activist. For the botanist, see. Dorothy day (plant physiologist). Dorothy day, oblSB (november 8, 1897 november 29, 1980) was an American journalist, social activist, and, catholic convert. Day initially for lived a bohemian lifestyle before gaining fame as a social activist after her conversion. She later became a key figure in the. Catholic Worker movement 1 and earned a national reputation as a political radical, 2 perhaps the most famous radical. American Catholic Church history.