The system then relays that information to the driver and team strategists. Most telemetry systems allow for two-way data transmissions and are based on microcontrollers and radio modems. Drive train the drive train will consist of the electric motor and the means by which the motors power is transmitted to the wheel causing the vehicle to move. Due to the low amount of power generated (less than 5 hp) usually only one wheel in the rear of the car is driven by the electric motor. The motor types that have been used in solar cars include brushed dc motors dc brushless motors induction motors dc brushless motors are commonplace in solar car racing. Rare-earth, permanent magnets mounted on the rotor, reacts to magnetic fields produced by the motors windings. Three-phase windings allow the rotor remain at constant torque.
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Mppts are of three types: down (buck) converters, which convert the pv voltage to a resume lower battery voltage; up (boost) converters, which convert the pv voltage to a higher battery voltage; and dual (buck-boost) converters, which will convert either way, though usually with a penalty. 1 finding the maximum power point: There are two methods to find the maximum power point. Open-circuit voltage tracking: The tracker periodically measures the open circuit voltage, voc, of the pv string, then sets the operating voltage to Vmp k voc, where k is a constant. The method is simple, and reasonably effective. This method is used by aerl trackers. Power tracking: The tracker measures changes in output power as it makes small changes to the operating point, and adjusts the operating point to maximise output power. 3 motor controllers: This component performs the complex task of deciding how much current actually reaches the motor at a given time. This determination of current by the motor controller allows the car to accelerate, decelerate, or stay at a constant speed. The better motor controllers are up to 90 efficient. 4 telemetry: A teams telemetry system is used for data acquisition. A commercial or custom system monitors conditions such as speed, battery voltage, power collection and consumption, and motor temperature.
Peak power trackers can be very lightweight and commonly reach efficiencies above. A maximum power point tracker bill (mppt) is a dc-dc converter that matches the output of a pv string to the battery voltage in a way that maximises the power generated by the pv string. The power generated by a pv string depends on the operating voltage. Pv power increases steadily with operating voltage to a maximum, and then drops off rapidly as the voltage is increased further to the open-circuit voltage. A tracker allows the pv string to always operate at the most efficient point, independently of the battery voltage. For example, if your battery voltage is 100V and the ideal operating point for an array string is 2A x 120V 240W, the tracker output will. 4A x 100V 240W. In practice, there is always a small loss of 1-2 due to inefficiencies in the tracker electronics.
1 batteries: A solar car uses the battery pack to store energy, which will be at a later time. The battery pack is made up of several individual modules wired together to generate the required system voltage. The types of batteries used include: lead-Acid Nickel-Metal Hydride (nimh) nickel-Cadmium (nicad) lithium Ion The nicad, nimh, and Lithium batteries offer improved power to weight ratio over the more common lead-Acid batteries, but are more costly to maintain. Typically, teams use system voltages between 84 and 108 volts, depending on their electrical system. For example, tesseract uses 512 li-ion batteries, broken down into twelve modules, which are each equivalent to a car battery, but only weigh 5 lbs each. Through an innovative pack design, the batteries are ventilated with even airflow to minimize temperature differences between the modules. 2 peak power trackers: The peak power trackers condition the electricity coming from the solar array to maximize the power and deliver it either to the batteries for storage or to the motor controller for propulsion. When the solar array is charging the batteries, the peak power trackers help to protect the batteries from being damaged by overcharging.
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The common three-wheel configuration is two front wheels and one rear resume wheel (usually the driven wheel). Four-wheel vehicles are sometimes configured like a conventional vehicle (with one of the rear wheels being driven). Other four-wheel vehicles have the two rear wheels close together near the centre (similar to the common three wheel configuration). Solar car wheel designs are similar to those of bicycle tires. Generally, the wheels rims and hubs are aluminium while the spokes are made of steel.
A mylar film is placed over the spokes to increase aerodynamic efficiency. Pneumatic tires are preferred over solid rubber tires because they weigh less and provide a smoother ride. The best tires currently available are the Bridgestone Ecopia tires made for solar cars. They are very thin and operate at over one hundred pounds/inch pressure. Electrical system the heart of a solar car is the electrical system, which is made up of batteries and power electronics. Power electronics include the peak power trackers, the motor controller, and the data acquisition system. The primary function of the power electronics is to monitor and control the electricity within the system.
Hydraulic disc brakes are commonplace in solar cars because of their adjustability and good braking power. As a supplemental system, some teams have regenerative braking which allows some of the kinetic energy stored in the vehicles translating mass to be stored in the battery when the car is slowing down. Here the cars motor becomes a generator as regenerative braking is applied and adds energy to the batteries during deceleration. Both maize blue and sunrunner had hydraulic disc brakes while only sunrunner used regenerative braking. 5 suspension: Of the available front suspension variants, macPhearson struts or double a arms are most common in solar cars.
A macPhearson strut requires a large vertical clearance since it is positioned perpendicular to the ground. Double a arms require less vertical clearance, but consist of more components. Depending upon the design a suitable one is chosen. The most common rear suspension is a trailing arm, similar to that found in motorcycles. Due to a single degree of motion, the trailing arm suspension allows for convenient packaging of dampers and the drivetrain. 6 wheels: Wheels, however, are the least efficient part of a solar car due to rolling resistance. About one third of the energy used by a solar car is lost due to this factor. Due to this limitation, contact with the ground should be minimized. Solar cars typically have three or four wheels.
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The mechanical systems of a solar car are designed to minimize friction and weight while professional maintaining the strength needed to handle the various road conditions. Lightweight metals like titanium and composites are commonly used to maximize the strength-to-weight ratio. 3 steering: The major design factors for steering are reliability and efficient performance. The steering system is designed with precise steering alignment because even small misalignments can cause significant losses and increase tire wear. Different cars use different steering mechanisms depending on their offer budget and other considerations. The sunrunner utilized a rack and pinion system that was attached to the steering arms by means of tie rods. Tesseract, a single-seat high performance solar racecar, uses a centre mounted handlebars, much like that on bicycles that connect to a rack-and-pinion steering system. 4 brakes: to maximize efficiency, the brakes are designed to move freely, eliminating brake drag, which is caused by brake pads rubbing against the brake surface.
Some cars also have externally mounted mirrors of mirrors within a bubble canopy. 2 ventilation: High temperatures are obviously bad for the driver (and passenger but they are also bad for electrical and electronic components as high temperatures will generally reduce the efficiency and shorten the life of solar cells, batteries, motors, motor controllers and other electronic equipment. Pic Figure 2: The comfortable interior temperature and air flow world rate as a function of outside temperature. Something like 10 kilograms of air would typically have to be provided every minute to approach passenger car comfort levels. Obviously, thats seldom feasible in a solar car due to the drag that it might impose on the vehicle, if such cooling flows are not also required by electrical, electronic and mechanical components of the vehicle. Vehicle designers usually use the same airflow several times over as it passes through the vehicle; for example cooling driver, electronics, electrics and motor sequentially. Placing a sizeable air inlet at the forward stagnation point of the vehicle minimises drag due to the opening. Naca ducts are an alternative for getting air into the car if theres a reasonably-flat, external surface nearby that doesnt have significant divergent (or convergent) flow.
process called regenerative braking, which allows some of the kinetic energy stored in the vehicles translating mass to be stored in the battery when the car is slowing down. A solar car is made up of many components that have been integrated together so that they work as a single system. For the ease of explanation it has been broken down into five primary systems: Driver Controls mechanical Systems Electrical System Drive train solar Array body and Chassis. Driver controls mechanical systems solar cars do have some of the standard features found in conventional cars, such as turn signals (front rear brake lights, accelerator, rear view mirrors, fresh air ventilation, and usually cruise control. The drivers and passengers are protected safety harnesses and helmets. Drivers and passengers can look forward to uncomfortable seats, cramped positioning, and high cockpit temperatures as these cars have very few amenities for the driver. 1 rear vision: Mirrors mounted to a cars exterior greatly increase aerodynamic drag; therefore, an out-of-thebox thinking is required to find a solution. Sunrunner, a solar car developed by the University of Michigan in 1995, utilized a fibre optic cable connecting an eyepiece in the drivers area to a lens located in an aerodynamic fin mounted on top of the canopy. Maize blue, a later model developed by the University, on the other hand, chose an electronic system consisting of a miniature camera installed in the cars trailing edge and a pocket television in the drivers area.
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1, solar review Car introduction. An overview a solar car is a vehicle, which is powered by suns energy. A solar car is a light weight, low power vehicle designed and built with a single purpose in mind racing. They have limited seating (usually one, sometimes two people they have very little cargo capacity, and they can only be driven during the day. It does, however, offer an excellent opportunity to develop future technologies that can be applied to practical applications. Pic Figure 1: Energy Flow diagram of a solar Car. The main component of a solar car is its solar array, consisting of photovoltaic cells, which collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical energy.