Cultural historians of the nineteenth century burckhardt enumerates many of those conditions which influenced the human consciousness: wealth and culture, so far as display and rivalry were not forbidden to them, a municipal freedoma Church which was not identical with the State - all these. All these factors also influenced the renaissance vision of good and evil associated with God, order and disorder which began to disappear. Moreover, new outlook on the world has sharply changed the spiritual and moral values in human consciousness. The principle of free human development becomes a main idea of the late renaissance, and a religious sight at a person as on a sinful being who was thought to be evil has also been this period, the new direction gets stronger which is called. According to Oxford English Dictionary, under this word was understood a world outlook, proclaiming the supreme value of the human, confirming his rights of happiness and harmonious development (cf. A persons earthly life and his struggle for happiness become the main idea of this epoch.
A treatise of Human Nature: david Hume
It was a simple position between good and evil, in which good was regarded as aspiration to be perfect, while evil was seen as a consequence of human sins. Humans believed that God gave man freedom of choice to move on the Chain in both directions. Twentieth century critic Spivack nicely describes the free choice of man on the Chain, saying: Already part angel part beast, man can rise to more angelic stature to fulfil his spiritual aspiration, or he can degenerate to bestiality through surrender to animal nature (24). Man was thought to be capable of two kinds of sins. As man had a soul as an angel, he could be overwhelmed with passions, which was called intellectual sin. Man had also physical desires as an animal, so he could be overwhelmed with physical satisfaction which was called physical sin. People believed that it depended on each person whether he followed his intellect or not in order to make a choice between good and evil. However, in the late renaissance the development of the individual takes place and, as the consequence of it, the hierarchical system of nature has collapsed. Now instead of glorifying God, art was directed to honour the individual. Church was not seen as a main centre about of social activities, religion was not dominating anymore, and material world became a dominant part of life.
So, the theatrical performers acting in this way were also seen as despised and evil figures. Johnston explains, that in that age there was a banal vision of evil, because of existed social structure, he adds that there was a frequent attempt to demonize such individuals, that is, to make them as abnormal and unnatural as possible (1). Moreover, while strong medieval beliefs in God and the devil still continued to exist in the renaissance, it was widely belied in the existence and power of witchcraft. It was supposed that witches were representatives of evil, because they could control a man´s soul and his fate. Contemporary researcher of literature bailey comments on beliefs in witches of Renaissance age, saying that witches were accused of worshiping demons, renouncing their faith, and surrendering themselves completely to the service of the devil, he adds that belief in witchcraft fed to a large degree. So, the witches, whose supernatural practices were seen as a danger to natural order of society and religion, were thought to be in alliance with the devil, because their power was directed against men. In addition, being aware that consciousness of good and evil was incorporated in human nature, people believed in the Chain of being, a concept which reflected human position in the hierarchy of the world. To apply the understanding of good and evil to human behaviour, people looked carefully at the position of man on the Chain. According to tillyard, the Chain started with Gods throne summary at the top leading down to the lowest creatures, the beasts, where human had a central position on the great chain (cf.66).
Being deeply religious, people believed that denial of society or family bond was a sin, which could lead to a disruption of society order. Moreover, persons who were trying to harm the order by their wrongdoings were regarded as evil persons, because they could cause chaos, and disruption of natural order. A good example of evil characters gives a renaissance drama, where vice figure of morality plays developed in a villain person, who was seen as a cruel person involved in wrongdoing. Modern critic coe explains that the audience of Elizabethan Age regarded villains as evil persons. He states that audience regarded them as types: black, illegitimate, deformed, he adds that the audience did not feel any sympathy for villains, because they were unnaturally objective about their criminal nature (69). In addition, one of such evil figures was Machiavel, the term derived from the Italian philosopher of the renaissance machiavelli who wrote the book the Prince, which was published in 1532, andin nashville which he gave a special importance to the fact that a royal Prince. Such idea was regarded as an evil one, slogan because deception and manipulation of others was seen as means directed against medieval society and was associated with disruption of society order.
Order was the condition of human existence and was present everywhere: in outer space, nature and society. People saw themselves as part of the hierarchical system and did not question the existence of the universe and order at all. Especially important for people was society, which was held by family and religious bonds. Modern critic Johnston explains that faith, hope and charity were responsibilities of that bonds which tied together the family and the larger social groups, he adds that bonding gave individuals a rich sense of social identity where each person´s place in a hierarchical order was. So, people did not question the existence of the universe, because they accepted a general order as a law. Moreover, they glorified God as a powerful organizer and feared the destruction of that system, which was the basis for their life. Relying on such social believes the distinction between good and evil was set by the norms of human behaviour. Evil was defined as opposite of good and was thought to be every action which could harm the natural order, especially society and family order, which was so important for people.
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Additionally, it was widely believed that human´s soul was controlled by god and the devil. For example, modern critic davenport explains that wrongdoing of a man of that age was seen as corruption of human natureby the devil (4). Moreover, in that age there was a tendency to personify the concepts of good and evil, and a good example of such personified notions of good and evil give the medieval morality plays. According to davenport ideas of good and evil were represented by allegorical personification of human nature (5 were goodwas presented in a figurative way, and was called virtue, which stand for all good qualities of a man. Evil was also personified and was called vice figure which stand for all negative qualities of a man.
Supposing that supernatural beings can control a man´s soul, virtue was thought to be messenger of God, whereas Vice was believed to be a messenger of the demon. Moreover, the pattern of resolving conflict between one good and evil was a simple one, because according to davenport it was the patternof innocence, corruption and repentance (5). So, it can be concluded that the traditional resolving of the conflict between good and evil was that goodness prevail evil, as a sinful man who had to repent and was saved by god. While in the middle Ages it was believed that good and evil originated from God and the devil, in the renaissance the meaning of good and evil has changed. It was accepted that good and evil was a part of human nature and originally came from human beings. It should be pointed out that people of that age believed that the whole world was organized by god as a hierarchical system. Tillyard, researcher in the field of Elizabethan literature, states that people of that era believed in the existence of order in the universe, and adds that order was the condition of all that followed (11).
It will deal with the problems of goodness of Cordelia and Banquo, evilness of Edmund and Lady macbeth and badness of lear and Macbeth. It will also identify how the characters turn to good, bad or evil side, whether they become creator or victims of evil, and finally reveal who of them can be called good, bad or evil person. Finally, the third part of the thesis will present the interpretation of the final scenes where both tragedies end with the coronation of the new king. It will explore the conflict of both forces and reveal what kind of force can actually win the struggle between good and evil in both plays. It will also deal with the problem of ambivalent depiction of the characters and examine the question of what is actually good and evil and how to define it in Shakespeare´s plays. So, the aim of the thesis is to explore the problems of the concepts of good and evil in terms of the tragedies.
King lear and, macbeth and to identify to what extent the characters can be seen as good and evil. However, before exploring the characters it is worth introducing the varied meanings and definitions of the concepts of good and evil in Renaissance in order to be aware of how these concepts changed. First, it is important, curious and interesting comparing the vision of good and evil in the middle Ages and Renaissance in order to understand how meanings of those concepts have changed from one century to another. In the middle Ages, it was believed that good initially originated from God and evil was created by the devil. Medieval philosophers wondered about the origins of good and evil, and came to the conclusion that evil could not come from God. For example, basel, theologian of the fourth century, claimed that evil was neither uncreated nor created by god, while the pseudo-dionysius, philosopher of the next century, stated that evil was neither good nor productive of good (in Spivack, 17). Evil was seen as absence of good and God, and by that reason it was supposed to be originatedfrom the devil.
Human Nature: Inherently good or evil?
Moreover, these concepts were defined quite interestingly in early renaissance. With existing hierarchical system and natural order in the universe in that age, good and evil were separated with the set of behavioural norms, so the that evil was defined as opposite of good and meant every action which with could cause the disruption of this order;. However, in the late renaissance, which is also seen as the beginning of the modern era, the existing system of the universe has collapsed and the perception of good and evil has changed again. The concepts began to be distinguished as good, bad and evil acts. Moreover, they began to be problematic to be clearly defined, and the question also existed about struggle and victory of both forces. Additionally, the second part of the thesis will explore the problems of those concepts in terms. King lear and, macbeth.
Challenging Concepts of good and evil: lear and Macbeth. The final Scenes. Introduction, the concepts of good and evil, which can be understood and defined differently, are two broad and sapid concepts because of its diverse interpretations. The two abstract notions have been discussed throughout the centuries since the human existence and continue to be a dispute today. However, the meaning of good and evil was especially interesting in the middle Ages and Renaissance that will be introduced in the first part of this thesis. It will present the different origins of good and evil and examine how variously these concepts were perceived in the middle Ages and Renaissance. It should be pointed out that there water was a great contrast in defining of good and evil in both centuries. While in the middle Ages, good was supposed to come from God and evil from the devil, in the renaissance it was believed that good and evil originated from human beings.
higher power to whom people prayed and made sacrifices, sometimes human. Christianity, is the faith in the true god, the god of justice, truth and love, which in addition to a prayer, teaches how to live and in this manner opens the way to a healthy and fulfilling life on earth, and this tells. Table of Contents. The concepts of good and evil in Renaissance. Good and evil in, king lear and, macbeth.1. Forces of goodness: Cordelia and Banquo.2. Forces of evil: Edmund and Lady macbeth.3.
It opens up the spiritual world of good and evil, and their consequences in every moment of the life. Man clearly sees his actions, as well as the actions of other people and their consequences. Therefore, many programs for the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction and other dependencies include elements of Orthodoxy. See link below to metropolitan hierotheos Nafpaktos (Vlachos). Such a person is biography "together" (collected his behavior is predictable. One can trust him, he is honest, he will not lie, he will not betray, etc. Such a person, if he makes a mistake, will try to correct.
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(Proverbs 2:6 3500 years ago this essay was written for an unbeliever, with a secular and technical education, who knows almost nothing about Christianity and Orthodoxy. It explains the very essence of the faith, from the everyday and practical point of view. It is necessary to form (educate) an honest and a decent person, a good family man, an employee and a member of a society. The consequence of goodness and evil is obvious: goodness creates, evil destroys; goodness loves, evil hates; book goodness helps, evil drowns; goodness wins with kindness, evil with force; goodness is joyful, evil is hateful; goodness is beautiful, evil is ugly; goodness is peaceful, evil is hostile;. Three dimensions of a man. Psychology and other secular subjects see man in two dimensions: physical (body) and mental (mind). Christianity sees also a third dimension - the spirit (good and evil in a man). Therefore, the vision and understanding of man in Christianity, and especially in Orthodoxy, is fuller and deeper than in the secular sciences. Therefore, the Orthodox Church is a teacher, a mentor and a clinic.