The repertoire is given, in an alphabetical order as found in the sources, and includes digraphs, trigraphs, or tetragraphs used as letters for alphabetizing, when a language is subject to this practice. Example: In Welsh, the order a, b, c, ch,. Indicates that, in the sources, all words beginning with ch follow all words beginning with cy and precede words beginning with da ( afon, blwyddyn, cn, cyngres, chwech, dydd ). The punctuation conventions in the repertoires are important. Commas separate letters of the alphabet considered unique at the first level of alphabetic ordering. Example: In Northern Sami, the order a, á, b,.
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Hebrew and Arabic are non-European scripts used to write some european languages. 4.1 Punctuation and numbers Punctuation marks to indicate major breaks in text are relatively ancient. In the earliest texts, spacing, a health single dot or stroke, or multiple dots or strokes, were often the only marks used. Over the past 400 years or so, however, a standard set of punctuation marks has evolved which is generally used in common regardless of script. The Alphabets of Europe provides a repertoire of punctuation characters. 4.2 How to read the repertoires For each language, first the name of the language is given in English, followed by the original name of the language in its natural spelling, with a transliteration into latin letters in parentheses where the original language does not. Some unwritten language names are given in the International Phonetic Alphabet, always set off with square brackets. The version number of the repertoire is given. The base version was Version.0. When comments are received for a particular language and any change to the repertoire made (including notation of the approval of an online authoritative source the version number is increased.1,.2, etc. The repertoire itself is given.
All European scripts also have a system of non-decimal numbers derived the by giving numeric values to the letters. Decimal numerals are used for calculations; alphabetic numerals are often used for the pagination of front matter, indexing and so forth. ( The Alphabets of Europe does not give further information on alphabetic numeral systems.) European scripts typically have a fixed number of basic letters, to which additional letters are appended for use with particular languages. Some of these additional letters are also basic letters which are not to be identified with any other letter; others are derived letters created either by some deformation of the basic letter itself or by adding some diacritic mark or sign. The latin, Greek, cyrillic, and Armenian alphabets have case, that is, almost all letters have both a capital and a small form. Hebrew, Arabic, and Mkhedruli georgian do not share this feature. Latin, Greek, cyrillic, Armenian, and georgian are written from left to right; Hebrew and Arabic are written from right to left.
An example would be the preference of the spelling façade over facade in English. Criterion 3 : Letters from other languages commonly used in texts of a given language may be included if, in good usage by well-informed writers, they are used naturally in the recipient language. Commonly used personal names, such as French names in Breton texts or Russian names in Tatar texts, would fall into this category. Rarely used letters, however, would normally not. Criterion 4 : Letters from loanwords in common usage within the regions report in which the language is spoken may be included. (It is unlikely that this criterion would add letters not already included as the result of the previous criteria.).0 Writing systems Modern European writing systems are alphabetic, not syllabic (like ethiopic or Cherokee) or logographic (like chinese). Together with its own alphabet, each of Europes languages uses a set of punctuation marks which, in general, is standardized between the scripts. (Exceptions or additions to this set are discussed in the relevant sections below.) Decimal digits are also in standard use, though the Arabic script has unique glyphs for these.
Some languages have official institutions governing orthography and usage (examples: LAcadémie française for French, norsk språkråd for Nynorsk norwegian and bokmål Norwegian. Other languages have unofficial but respected institutions governing orthography and usage (example: Oxford University Press for English ). Most languages have no official institutions, but are described in dictionaries, educational materials, scholarly linguistic texts, and other kinds of documents. Note: Users of this document may choose to weigh the authority for an entry hierarchically: national standard official institution unofficial institution dictionary educational material linguistic description other description The source references used for each repertoire are stated in the section dealing with each language. This will allow the user to make an informed judgement of the authenticity of the selection of letters included in an alphabet. Criterion 2 : The selection should be supplemented by usage in literature of well-informed writers in works published by organizations which are recognized to be particular about correct normal usage. Note: A certain snobbishness with regard to notions of good typography or proper spelling is inherent in this criterion.
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Daniels william Bright, the worlds writing systems, 1996 (isbn ).2 alphabet A structured collection of graphic symbols used to represent one or more languages, having specific characters for vowels and consonants. The latin, Greek, cyrillic, Armenian, and georgian scripts are alphabets. The term is derived from the first two disadvantages letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha and beta. Note: to write yiddish and Ladino, the hebrew abjad is used as an alphabet. 2.3 autochthonous Belonging to the original or earliest known inhabitants of a country; aboriginals. ( Concise Oxford ).4 indigenous (Esp.
Of flora or fauna) originating naturally in a region; (of a people) born in a region; (foll. By to ) belonging naturally to a place. ( Concise Oxford ).5 letter An element of an abjad or alphabet. 2.6 writing system An abjad or alphabet combined with a collection of numerals, punctuation marks, and other symbols to represent one or more languages. 3.0 Criteria for evaluation of the repertoires The following criteria form the basis of the review of characters included in the alphabet of each repertoire. Criterion 1 : Letters for inclusion should be determined by definitive and authoritative reference works, if available.
In The Alphabets of Europe, all languages are considered equal insofar as their alphabets and the field of Information Technology are concerned. The fact that there are something like 90,000,000 German speakers and something like 12,000 Rutul speakers means that spell-checkers and grammar checkers might be expected to be made available for the former in the short term, but not for the latter. No particular recommendations are made with regard to such implementation. What is strongly recommended is that all the letters of the all the standard literary alphabets of Europe be representable in Unicode and iso/iec 10646. Genetic index of languages In this html document, clicking on the name of a language will retrieve a pdf file with data for that language. (Parentheses around a repertoire name indicates that the pdf file available is a dummy document, when information on the languages orthography is not available or has not been processed.) Afro-Asiatic languages Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Arabo-canaanite: Arabic: Maltese Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic: ( Aisor.
(Parentheses around a repertoire name indicates that the pdf file available is a dummy document, when information on the languages orthography is not available or has not been processed.) Abaza abkhaz adyghe Agul * ( Aisor ) Akhvakh * Albanian ( Älvdalska ) ( Andi. The scripts of Europe The languages listed.2 employ the latin, Greek, cyrillic, Armenian, hebrew, Arabic, and georgian scripts. Formerly, the linear a, linear b, cypriot, Old Italic, Iberian, Ogham, runic, Old Hungarian, Old Permic, and Glagolitic scripts were used to write european languages. 2.0 Definitions The following definitions apply to The Alphabets of Europe :.1 abjad A structured collection of graphic symbols used to represent one or more languages, having specific characters for consonants. The Arabic and Hebrew scripts are abjads. The term is derived from sounds of the first four basic letterforms of the Arabic alphabet, alef, beh, jeem, and dal.
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For some of these languages, the populations speaking them are rather large; conversely, some of the languages with standard orthographies have very small numbers of speakers. For each language, an estimated population has been given. The population estimates for European languages are best taken with a spoonful of salt. Accurate censuses have never been taken. For some communities, where the entire population is more or less identical to the number of speakers (Iceland for instance the number given may be considered to be fairly reliable. Much of the soviet data was collected on the basis of reasonably robust and comprehensive questionnaires involving self-identification. Sources for the population estimates are given; readers must use their own judgement as to the usefulness of this data.
It is not a political survey. The area defined here may be seen on page xiv, geographical Comparisons, in The times Atlas of essay the world: comprehensive edition, 1990 (isbn ). 1.2 The languages of Europe a convenient way of enumerating the languages of Europe is to do so by linguistic family. The classification used in The Alphabets of Europe is based on, but is not identical with, the classification found in Merritt Ruhlens A guide to the worlds languages. Volume 1: Classification, 1992 (isbn which is a well-defined taxonomy with a bibliography helpful for further study. Most Europeans speaking indigenous European languages speak indo-european or Uralic languages, but five other language families are also represented in Europe. The intent of The Alphabets of Europe is to be neutral with respect to language; its task is to document alphabets, not to rank languages in any particular way. Accordingly, languages are listed by family and subfamily in clause.2.1, and alphabetically in clause.2.2. An asterisk following a language name in the indices indicates that the language has no standard literary orthography.
Christopher Miller, åke persson, hugh McGregor Ross, Klaas Ruppel, keld Simonsen, xulio. Sousa fernández, monica Ståhl, Alexandrina Stătescu, libor Sztemon, Trond Trosterud,. Umamaheswaran, luc van den Berghe, uwe waldmann, max Wheeler, þorgeir Sigurðsson, and Þorvarður Kári Ólafsson. Very special thanks are due to judy nye (University research Library, university of California, los Angeles for granting the editor a weeks indulgence as he photocopied hundreds of pages of material in 1997. 1, scope, the Alphabets of Europe gives information on characters used in Europes indigenous languages. In order to accomplish this, a definition of the geographical area covered has been given to assist the reader. The geographical area of Europe, the Alphabets of Europe uses the following geographical and geophysical definition of Europe:Europe extends from the Arctic and Atlantic (including Iceland and the faroe islands) southeastwards to the mediterranean (including Malta and Cyprus with its eastern and southern borders being. It is important to note that this is a geolinguistic survey.
The Alphabets of Europe serves to remedy that oversight. The main function of these pages is to present a catalogue of European alphabets. The characters which are, and in some cases were, used to write each of the languages of Europe (as far as it report has been possible to find information on them are included here. Some of Europes languages (particularly in the caucasus) still have no tradition of writing, though other information on such languages is provided here when it is available. Likewise, some languages have used, or continue to use, one or more than one writing system, which may also be reflected here. The Alphabets of Europe could not have been compiled without the input of many, many people, and the difficult nature of the material presented here begs for explicit acknowledgement of the abundant expertise which has been contributed. Among these are the following: Celso Alvarez cáccamo, wolf Arfvidson, baldur Jónsson, Uldis Balodis, nelson.
The letters of the alphabet
Michael everson, version.0, contents 0, introduction 1, scope.1. The geographical area of Europe.2, the languages of Europe.3, the scripts of Europe.0, definitions.0, criteria for evaluation.0, writing systems.0 Repertoires.1 Punctuation.2 Digits and numbers, annex. Administrative units of Europe, annex b, european Sign Languages. Annex c, changes from previous versions 0, introduction, the Alphabets of Europe provides a source of linguistic data for the indigenous languages of Europe. The use of the term indigenous (or autochthonous ) indicates that this report covers the languages native to the european geographical area. Nativeness is to be understood in an academic linguistic sense. Other languages, more recently imported or resume transplanted to europe (Vietnamese and Bengali, for instance) are not covered by this report (Greenlandic and kazakh are exceptions here). The exclusion of such languages from this report is not intended to imply any bias whatsoever against such immigrant languages or their speakers. However, it is relatively easy to get information on the orthography of vietnamese and Bengali, while many of Europes indigenous minority languages have been poorly served in the area of Information Technology if, indeed, they are acknowledged at all.